Estimating Sheet

# Some vital civil engineering notes

Construction Software In this civil engineering tutorial video, you will be familiar with some important notes for civil engineers.

Standard Conversion Factor: The objective of a conversion factor is to modify the units of a measured quantity retaining its value unchanged. Besides, if the numerator and denominator of a fraction are equivalent to each other, then the fraction is identical to one.

Given below, the details of standard conversion factors:

1 inch = 25.4 mm
1 feet = 0.3048 m
1 yard = 0.9144 m
1 meter = 3.28 ft
1 mm = 0.0394 inch
1 mile = 1.6093 km
1 newton = 0.10 kg

Unit weight of steel: To determine the weight, the following formula is used :-

W= D^2/162.2; D belongs to the diameter of steel bars.
It is obtained from the very basic concept
i.e., weight = density x volume
It is also possible to write it as weight = density x (area x length)

We know, density of steel= 7850 kg/m^3 ,
Length= 1 m &
Aea = pi x d^2/ 4
So, weight = (7850 x (3.14/4) d^2 x 1000) / (10^9)
= d^2 x 0.00616225

Unit of steel in kg per meter

### Also Read: Cost Estimation Construction Worksheets

For 6 mm steel the weight should be 0.222 kg/m
For 8 mm steel the weight should be 0.395 kg/m
For 10 mm steel the weight should be 0.616 kg/m
For 12 mm steel the weight should be 0.888 kg/m
For 16 mm steel the weight should be 1.578 kg/m
For 20 mm steel the weight should be 2.466 kg/m
For 25 mm steel the weight should be 3.853 kg/m
For 32 mm steel the weight should be 6.313 kg/m
For 40 mm steel the weight should be 9.865 kg/m

For M5 concrete grades, the ratio should have been = 1:4:8
M10 concrete grades, the ratio should have been = 1:3:6
For M15 concrete grades, the ratio should have been = 1:2:4
For M20 concrete grades, the ratio should have been = 1:1.5:3
For M25 concrete grades, the ratio should have been = 1:1:2

Here, M stands for mix and M15 stands for compressive strength of concrete attained after 28 days as 15 N/mm2 (N = newton).
The top of raft foundation should have been = 50 mm
The bottom of raft foundation should have been = 75 mm
foundation side should have been = 75 mm
The clear cover of beam should have been = 25 mm
clear cover of strap beam should have been = 50 mm
Column clear minimum clear cover should have been = 40 mm
Flat slab should have been = 20 mm
Slab should have been = 15 mm

To get more civil engineering notes, watch the following civil engineering video tutorial.

Video Source: Civil Engineers 