Stages involved in road construction
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Road construction is a time consuming and long running process that is based on the size of the future pathway.
It comprises of various construction crews and plant machinery and necessitates proper planning and different assessments along with ecological and structural assessments. As soon as the construction is started, there exist various phases prior to utilized the road by the vehicles.
Clearing and Excavation: The area through which the road will be constructed should be cleared of all vegetation, which involves the elimination of trees, shrubs and bushes. Excavation vehicles should be used to excavate and take out rocks and stones from the future road's pathway. To protect the cleared land from eroding, various control devices along with fences, ditches and basins should be installed.
Mounting: The road acquires shape since diggers, excavation plant machinery and bulldozers pile dirt and soil over the area where the future pathway will pass. The surface is then leveled and smoothed with graders.
Culverts and drains, comprise of large concrete pipes, are arranged to protect the road from flooding by pulling away groundwater, sewage or stormwater
Fine Grading: The purpose of fine grading is to make surface ready by leveling it as per the plans submitted by structural engineers.
Also Read: Building and Road Estimating Sheet
For fine grading, manual labor, digging as well as grading plant machinery (known as graders) are necessary. To maintain the longevity of the grading, limestone or concrete is mixed with it.
Aggregate Base: After providing another grading of the surface, the aggregate base course is placed. Aggregate base is formed with crushed stone or gravel, and it is set uniformly on the road surface. If the road is located in a town or city, a curb for the pavement and the gutter should be built up straight after the gravel is set on the surface. The road is then fine graded once more.
Asphalt Paving: As soon as the gravel is allocated uniformly, the asphalt should be poured. Asphalt is a blend of a petroleum byproduct, an aggregate base material and a sticky, gluelike substance known as bitumen. Based on the probable traffic on the road, up to four layers of asphalt are set on top of each other. The asphalt generally is formed and blended in large plants according to the engineer's specifications. The hot asphalt is provided into trucks that deliver the material to the construction site where it should be poured instantly. Prior to pour the last layer of asphalt, the sidewalks and gutters should be completed. The construction work is completed by arranging the proper road signs at the places recommended by planners and the application of road markings.
Go through the following civil engineering video to familiar with some modern techniques of road construction.
Video Source: cbaker2704
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