Types of bonds in brick masonry
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Brick masonry is constructed with bricks that is affixed together with mortar. Mud motar is utilized for temporary sheds whereas lime or cement mortars are employed for all permanent buildings.
The following types of bonds are normally found in brick masonry.
1. Stretcher bond
2. Header bond
3. English bond
4. Flemish bond.
Stretcher Bond: A stretcher belongs to the longest face of the brick found in the elevation. The brick with size of 190 mm × 90 mm × 90 mm, 190 mm × 90 mm, the face remains the stretcher. In stretcher bond masonry all the bricks are placed in stretcher courses. Precaution should be undertaken to split vertical joints. This type of construction is mostly found in the development of half brick thick partition wall.
Header Bond: A header refers to the shorter face of the brick as observed in the elevation. In a standard brick, the dimension of the bond will be 90 mm × 90 mm face. In header bond brick masonry all the bricks are set in the header courses. This type of bond is effective for developing one brick thick walls.
English Bond: In this type of alternate courses, headers and stretchers are included. It is recognized as the hardest bond. It can be applied for the walls having different types of thicknesses. To split coherency of vertical joints, a brick is sliced lengthwise into two halves and applied in the starting and end of a wall after first header. It is known as queen closer.
Flemish Bond: Under this type of bond each course contains alternate header and stretcher. Alternate courses begin with stretcher and header. To split the vertical joints, queen closers are necessary, when a course starts with header. Each header is supported in the middle on the stretcher under it.
Flemish bonds are categorized as follow :-
(a) Double Flemish Bond
(b) Single Flemish Bond.
For double flemish bond, both faces of the wall contain flemish look. It means each course comprises of alternate header and stretcher, while single flemish bond outer faces of walls contain flemish appearance but inner faces appear as English bond.
Superior skill is essential to build up flemish bond. It provides more elegant look. But it does not have good strength as English bond. If only pointing is applied for finished wall, flemish bond is perfect to obtain good artistic view. If plastering is applied, it is recommended to utilize English bond.
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